Dopamine receptor pruning in prefrontal cortex during the periadolescent period in rats. We tested sex differences in 22 white matter tracts. Adolescent risky decision-making: neurocognitive development of reward and control regions. An additional hypothesis—one that is not incompatible with the hypothesis that some of the sex differences seen here are a proximate cause of behavioral differences—is that brain structural differences might sometimes be the result of compensatory mechanisms for differences in sex-specific hormones, and might thus act to reduce behavioral sex differences that would otherwise have been present De Vries ; McCarthy and Arnold Meta-analysis of brain weight in schizophrenia.
Although both control and stressed dams were shipped for our study, it is nevertheless possible that an interaction occurred between the early stress of shipping and the later stress administered in our laboratory. The time of prenatal immune challenge determines the specificity of inflammation-mediated brain and behavioral pathology.
Details of preprocessing steps can be found in pages 12, 15 and 16 of Brain Imaging Document version 1. Cell death in the development of the posterior cortex in male and female rats. Therefore, our findings may speak to the neurodevelopmental origins of schizophrenia and the greater male vulnerability to this psychiatric illness.
Shaw et al.
Foam padding was placed on both sides of the head and wrapped soft towels were placed under the chin with the use of chin and forehead straps to minimize head movement. Estradiol positively influences hippocampal cell proliferation Tanapat et al. A gene on the Y chromosome is responsible for the cascade of developmental events that cause bodies and brains to take on male characteristics.
So, what does all this science tell us?
In contrast, the effects of adolescent-exposure to ethanol on adult drinking behavior [ 61 ] do not seem to be sex specific [ 62 ]. Epidemiology of women and depression. Shaw et al. After an initial visit for the gathering of medical and other information, a subset of these participants began attending for head MRI scanning.
Using sex differences in psychopathology to study causal mechanisms: unifying issues and research strategies.