As more whole genomes are being sequenced contrast autosomal and sex chromosomes in New York assembled, the homogametic sex e. The chicken Z has half the gene density of chicken autosomes, and the human X has roughly half the gene density of human autosomes.
Wickham, H. The fact that both mating-type chromosomes are always heterozygous and nonrecombining may explain such patterns that oppose to those found for XY or ZW sex chromosomes. Selection can also be acting to reduce Z-linked diversity relative to the autosomes, but was not investigated in this case.
Widespread selective sweeps throughout the genome of model plant pathogenic fungi and identification of effector candidates. This is true in several species of Drosophila.
There is also evidence that variation on the Y chromosome in Drosophila preferentially regulates tissue-specific genes and genes in repressive chromatin Sackton and Hartl Czech, B. A joint inference of Z-linked and autosomal diversity across exons and introns in the vinaceous rosefinch and the Taiwan rosefinch was used to infer that these two populations diverged about 0.
Female meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in chicken.
Autosome averaged ratio was also below unity 0. Similar levels of X-linked and autosomal nucleotide variation in African and non-African populations of Drosophila melanogaster. In addition, we predicted effects of nonsynonymous and missense variants on protein functions using the SIFT score.
Rates of recombination vary across the autosomes, sex chromosomes, mtDNA, and chloroplasts, suggesting that at least some of the variation in observed patterns of diversity could be due to the absence or presence of recombination. Speciation by reinforcement: a model derived from studies of Drosophila.
Such a lower general differentiation in mating-type chromosomes between clusters compared with autosomes is consistent with higher levels of gene flow in mating-type chromosomes than in autosomes.