Dopamine is involved in control of motor activity [ 48 ]. Annual Review of Medicine. Behav Brain Sci. A regulatory polymorphism of the monoamine oxidase-A gene may be associated with variability in aggression, impulsivity, and central nervous system serotonergic responsivity.
Decades of observations have demonstrated that under most conditions, male embryos grow faster than female embryos [ — ]. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. Cell Dev. Further, both medulloblastoma and pediatric high-grade glioma exhibit sex effects in subsets of disease in which there is dysregulation of histone H3K27 trimethylation, potentially providing reason to focus on this particular aspect of epigenetics.
Wounding and its role in RSV-mediated tumor formation. Cell Mol Life Sci.
Telomere down-regulation is common as we age, and the rate at which protective telomere chromosome caps are lost is higher in men. This dramatic change in brain metastases is largely attributed to advancements in primary cancer care, including better early detection and frontline therapies which lead to longer initial survival and a greater rate of death from recurrent and disseminated disease [ 44 ].
Exp Neurol. MDM2 is a negative regulator of p53 function. Reprints and Permissions. Similar to p53, Rb functions as a node for integrating signals regarding genomic stability, proliferation, apoptosis, stem cell function, and differentiation. UTX has already been suggested to play a sex-specific tumor suppressor role in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia [ ].
The sex-specific effect of p53 loss on neural tube closure has been ascribed to differences in X gene dosage [ 70 ].
Most studies on Sry expression have focused on the gonad and Sry 's subsequent effects on sex determination and differentiation [ ]. Human Women appear to be more dependent than men on NE for long-term emotional memory formation [ 63 ]. Here we highlight some of the model's basic concepts.
Cholinergic system The cholinergic system helps regulate the sleep-wake cycle and modulates synaptic plasticity implicated in memory, learning, and development [ 77 ; 78 ].