Rapid rates of molecular substitution are often thought to be associated with co-evolutionary arms races, so genetic conflict is a good candidate for the selective engine driving rapid evolutionary turnover [ 3 ], resulting in incompatibilities when formerly allopatric species are reunited [ 68 ].
When the sex ratio in a population is far from the Fisherian equilibrium, parental investment in the rarer sex will have a higher fitness return in subsequent generations and push the population sex ratio back towards equilibrium. Kelly WG, et al. Cell Biol.
Loley, C. Genome Res. Furman, D. As a result, the female will struggle with the male to reduce the detrimental effects. The idea of "paternal investment" supports the concept of female choice because female spiders consume males in order to receive an increase in quality of offspring.
A term that encompasses various gene regulatory phenomena that may differ between sexes, including differential expression and differential splicing. Nature68—74
Integrative and Comparative Biology. BMC Evolutionary Biology. Numerous wo You can explore tags individually by clicking on them, or by searching for them on our website.
Sex determination, sex ratios, and genetic conflict. The conflict theory predicts that unlike diploid species such as Drosophila , where hybrid male sterility factors accumulate at least five times more rapidly than hybrid lethality factors [ 81 , 82 ], haplodiploid species should not accumulate hybrid male sterility faster than other kinds of hybrid incompatibilities.
This suggests that the effect of the Z on hybrid female sterility might be quite large, as has been observed for other species-diagnostic traits in Lepidoptera [ 88 ]. These two comparative patterns result from a larger mutational target in species with a larger non-recombining sex-linked region such as Anopheles vs.
Second, some autosomal retrotransposed copies of X-linked genes might function as suppressors of sex-ratio distorters via RNAi. Sex-ratio segregation distortion associated with reproductive isolation in Drosophila.