Next year I might come over and visit some bee clubs and sit in to some club night talks. Oligolecty, or diet-specialization, has also been hypothesized to reduce N e by limiting both the population density and dispersal opportunities of specialist when compared to generalist bees Packer et al.
Archived from the original on 24 December Reremouse Bee Crapaudy toad Emmet ant Serpent. Some solitary bees have advanced types of pollen-carrying structures on their bodies. Stouthamer R. Females of this species have much shorter antennae.
Their ability to fly by night enables them to avoid many predators, and to exploit flowers that produce nectar only or also at night. Cox-Foster D. Genetics is able to tell the individuals sex and it has been that way for over a century. It even touched on cantaloupes at one point!
Here I treat the unique effects of complementary sex determination on the fitness of haplodiploids as distinct from inbreeding depression caused by dominance and overdominance. Is this correct? The frequency of diploid males is a negative function of effective population size Fig.
Using a sistership-based method, Ellis et al. In Hymenoptera, the males generally produce enough sperm to last the female for her whole lifetime after a single mating event with that male. However, both of the previously mentioned meta-analyses do not correct for phylogeny e.
Inbreeding depression : Reduction in the mean fitness of a trait due to inbreeding. So far, they have only been studied in the honey bee, but have been hard to crack for ants and related insects.