Divergent sexual development, known as intersexcan be a result of genetic and hormonal factors. Separate effects of sex hormones and sex chromosomes on brain structure and function revealed by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and spatial navigation assessment of the Four Core Genotype mouse model.
American Journal of Medical Genetics. Minireview: Sex differences in adult and developing brains: compensation, compensation, compensation. Metabolic impact of estrogen signalling through ERalpha and ERbeta. Others are demonstrable across cultures and have both biological and learned determinants.
This section needs expansion. The Y chromosome as a regulatory element shaping immune cell transcriptomes and susceptibility to autoimmune disease. Download as PDF Printable version. In males, the gonads are the testes and in females they are the ovaries.
A baby who inherits the Y chromosome from the father is a genetic male one X and one Y chromosome. Most mammalsincluding humans, have an XY sex-determination system : the Y chromosome carries factors responsible for triggering male development.
Divergent sexual development, known as intersexcan be a result of genetic and hormonal factors. Pieau and his colleagues focused on defining the TSD thermosensitive period, or the time of development during which changes in temperature can alter sexual organ growth.
Warner and Shine used hormonal manipulations to produce males and females across a range of temperatures in a species with TSD.
In females, the mesonephric ducts regress. In some cases, sex differences in disease can be dramatic, as in systemic lupus erythematosus SLE , which occurs nine times more often in women than men, or autism spectrum disorder which occurs 2—4 times more often in boys and men than in females.
Extensive studies of mice leave no doubt that the complement of sex chromosomes has direct effects outside the gonads, including on the brain, to cause sex differences Arnold et al. Gonadal sex refers to the gonads, that is the testis or ovaries, depending on which genes are expressed.